2024 - 1 - Scientific Petroleum

Scientific Petroleum
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Scientific Petroleum 2024, 1
T. J. Garayeva, Z. A. Novruzov, Kh. A. Allakhverdiyeva, A. R. Babayeva, G. M. Tashviq
Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Ministry of Science and Education of Azerbaijan Republic, Baku, Azerbaijan; Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan
On the territory of Azerbaijan, Paleogene deposits are widespread and often have facies alteration. To address the issues of stratigraphic, paleogeography, facies and paleoecological directions, a detailed stratigraphic basis of both the region as a whole and its individual sections is required. This article presents the results of joint magnetobiostratigraphic studies of the Paleogene deposits of the Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan) in order to clarify the boundaries of the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene. Biostratigraphically dated Paleogene deposits of the Khilmili, Pirakushkul, Dzhangi sections (southern slope of the Greater Caucasus) were chosen as the object of study. Paleomagnetic studies of the Paleogene deposits of Azerbaijan showed frequent reversals of the geomagnetic field of this period. The results of scientific studies of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus confirmed this fact. We have identified two paleomagnetic zones: 1) Khorem (Maastrichtian 70 Ma - Eocene 45 Ma) (zones of reverse polarity prevail in it, but the upper part of the Paleocene has a direct polarity) and 2) Sogdiana (RN-Oligocene and Miocene - characterized by alternating direct and reverse polarity paleomagnetic field). In the Lower Paleocene, 2 subzones of direct polarity were distinguished: Danian and Selandian. The position of the R-zone made it possible to draw the boundary between the Danian and Selandian stages. The identification of a paleomagnetic zone of reverse polarity contributed to the determination of the boundary between the Selandian and Thanetian stages. This result was confirmed by identifying changes in the micro-faunistic composition of deposits and observing the nature of variations in micro-floristic complexes. Such a paleomagnetic zone of reverse polarity is the benchmark (plug) for establishing the boundary between the Mons and Thanetian stages.

Keywords: paleomagnetism; southern slope of the Greater Caucasus; Paleogene; magnetostratigraphic boundaries.
e-mail: sadiqovataxmina@mail.ru

Date submitted: 14.01.2024 Date accepted: 24.05.2024
Yevlakh-Aghjabadi depression is a well explored oil province located in the Middle Kura basin between Greater and Lesser Caucasus.The study investigates the lithofacial, mineralogical, and collector properties of the Maykopian sedimentary series within the Yevlakh-Aghjabadi depression, focusing on the Oligocene to Early Miocene epoch. Maykop deposits are widely distributed in the foothill regions of the Lesser Caucasus, both at the surface as natural outcrops and in the geological structure of deeper formations. In this article, in addition to core samples, the results of fieldworks have also been widely discussed. The conducted research indicates favorable paleogeographic conditions for oil and gas presence in these depressions. The sedimentary sequence, up to 2200 meters thick, is divided into Lower and Upper Maykopian subgroups, showing fluctuating thickness distribution. The primary source of clastic materials for the Maykopian suit is the Lesser Caucasus Mountain range. The lithological composition consists of clay, sandstones, and conglomerates, influenced by paleogeographic changes and paleochannels. Collector properties vary, with Lower Maykopian sediments exhibiting better characteristics, especially in the south-western part of the basin. The mineralogical composition dominated by fine-grained feldspars, impacts reservoir quality. Maykopian suits in the oil and gas regions of Ganja and Muradkhanli, which encompass the southernwestern and northern-eastern flanks of the Yevlakh-Aghjabedibasin, as well as conducting extensive research on reservoir properties, will enable the proper direction of future exploration activities. For this purpose, the overall condition of the Maykopian suits and the distribution of lithofacies have been analyzed, and the characteristics of hydrocarbon reservoirs have been determined.

Keywords: lithology; lithofacies; Maykopian; sandy and clayey sediments; argillaceous sandstones; porosity; permeability.
e-mail: kamala.seferli@mail.ru

Date submitted: 18.02.2024   Date accepted: 13.06.2024
F. R. Mekhtiyev, R. S. Mammadova, T. F. Ibadzadeh
«OilGasScientificResearchProject» Institute, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan
In modern times, the role of energy resources is very large. One of the important energy resources is natural gas. The biggest advantage of using natural gas as a fuel is its high heat capacity and complete combustion without the formation of harmful substances. The process of natural gas distribution in the gas supply network is observed with gas loss. This is an objective, natural situation and creates a number of difficulties for natural gas enterprises. The article focuses on gas consumption in technological processes in the gas supply network, gas purges from pipelines during pipeline repair works, gas flushing out from the pipeline and determination of gas technological losses during the removal of air from the pipeline. Determination of gas losses caused by non-hermeticity of external gas pipelines and equipment, gas pressure regulation station (GPRS), cabinet-type gas control points (GCP), universal pressure regulator (UPR) and gas losses occurring during repairing of other technological equipment are discussed. Also, the determination of technical losses of natural gas at meters, sampling nodes, safety valves, gas distribution stations (GDS) (from gas losses during the management of shut-off valves, during purge of process instrumentation and automatics, when taking gas samples, during purges proses of safety valves, apparatus and pulse lines) is discussed. The article describes the principle of formation of technical losses in the gas supply network. Technical loss sources of natural gas in the process of gas supply, methods of calculating loss norms, the amount of small loss of which is determined separately for each specified loss source, are mentioned.

Keywords: gas supply; natural gas; technical losses; pipeline; GPRS; GCP; UPR; gas meters; safety valves; gas distribution station.
e-mail: tarlan.f.ibadzade@socar.az

Date submitted: 16.01.2024 Date accepted: 30.05.2024
T. S. Kengerli, N. A. Agayeva
«OilGasScientificResearchProject» Institute, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan
In some cases, it is necessary to connect new line to the pipeline. From this point of view, in the presented work, serious changes occurring in the pipeline as a result of connecting a new gas pipeline to the operating gas pipeline are investigated. The changes occurring in the pipeline are transmitted to the formations, which causes a violation of the stable operation of the wells in the initial period. After a certain period of time, the dynamic processes formed in the system as a result of changes in the transport line become stationary. From this point of view, it is of great practical importance to consider the stationary state of the processes occurring in the system. Therefore, in the presented work, as a result of the addition of a new line to the pipeline, the change in the production of gas wells in stationary regime conditions is studied. The effect of these changes on the operating mode of the wells, the effect on the change in production of operational wells is studied. Taking into account the interaction of the layer-pipeline system, a mathematical model of the movement process of gas and gas-liquid mixture is established, using the equations of motion and continuity, the resulting system of related differential equations is solved. With the help of the obtained formulas, the pressure drop and production reduction for each well are calculated during the connection of the new line. Numerical calculations are performed using various practical values of system parameters and the obtained results are analyzed.

Keywords: production; layer; pressure; pipeline; stationary state; gas-liquid mixture; motion and continuity equation.
e-mail: nurlana.a.aghayeva@socar.az

Date submitted: 13.03.2024 Date accepted: 03.06.2024
M. A. Jamalbayov, I. R. Hasanov, M. O. Dogan, T. M. Jamalbayli
«OilGasScientificResearchProject» Institute, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan; METU, Ankara, Turkey
Simulating the flow processes of complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as gas condensate mixtures and volatile oils, in deep reservoirs is one of the most challenging problems in reservoir hydrodynamics. The challenge lies in meeting three requirements simultaneously when creating a simulator: high accuracy, low computational cost, and high reliability. These metrics determine the performance of the simulation. Meeting all these requirements at the same time necessitates a hybrid approach to solving the problem and optimizing the computational algorithm in terms of CPU time. A new technique has been developed for hybrid modeling of the development of deposits of complex hydrocarbon mixtures. This technique integrates the theory of potential flow, the Binary Flow Model (which accounts for rock compaction, PVT properties of reservoir fluids, phase transformation, and mass transfer between phases), and the material balance equations of the hydrocarbon system using time discretization. In this case, to linearize nonlinear differential equations for the flow of a gascondensate mixture, the method of averaging reservoir pressure along the radial coordinate was used. By introducing the Khrestianovich function, an algorithm was obtained to determine the rate of inflow of the gas-condensate mixture to the well. Using material balance equations for gas and condensate, it was possible to obtain differential equations that describe changes in reservoir pressure and condensate saturation over time. Based on this technique, a simulator for a gas condensate reservoir was created, enabling computer studies to be conducted. The results demonstrated the proposed technique's good accuracy compared with the results of the semi-analytical solution.

Keywords: dynamic modeling; simulation; monitoring; streamline; hybrid modeling; binary model.
e-mail: mehemmed.camalbeyov@socar.az

Date submitted: 01.12.2023 Date accepted: 30.05.3024
Kh. M. Ibrahimov , A. A. Hajiyev , N. I. Huseynova , G. Sh. Asadova
«OilGasScientificResearchProject» Institute, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan;
Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Baku, Azerbaijan
Production well filter zone must comply a number of technical and economic requirements to maintain design oil production parameters. Howewer, despite the relevance of the problem, in the thematic literature and regulatory documentation on cementing operations, the issue of taking into account geological and technological, physical, chemical and geomechanical parameters of the productive formation around the producing wells is practically not paid to attention. Mainly, there are considered the cementing process in drilling operations along the wellbore as a whole. This article presents the results of laboratory, experimental and theoretical studies related to the development and application of technology that ensures the cementing works quality and safety, aimed at supporting the production wells filter zone in fields operating under «Azneft» PU. A technology has been developed for a reasonable and economical selection of materials and component composition, regulators and additives for setting and hardening of cement slurry, taking into account factors affecting the strength properties of the resulting cement stone in contact with the aggressive environment of the reservoir system. Technology is based on a comparative of the stresses arising in the resulting cement stone and drainage zone, checking the properties of the cement powder used in accordance with the filter zone current state. By using the research results carried out some of regulatory documents were adopted regulating the choice of cement composition for the well filter zone according to the formation geological and technological parameters. Application of the proposed approach is possible for wells of any field.

Keywords: cementing; cement slurry; well filter zone; cement slurry flow ability; lightweight cement slurry; cementing of well filter zone with maintenance of its capacity.
e-mail: nahide.huseynova@socar.az

Date submitted: 01.02.2024 Date accepted: 04.06.2024
Sh. Z. Ismayilov, Y. Y. Shmoncheva, G. V. Jabbarova
Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, Baku, Azerbaijan
Drilling wells presents a number of problems such as loss of circulation, wellbore instability, stuck pipe due to differential pressure or mechanical problems, and increased formation damage. Traditionally, these problems have been addressed by installing additional casing, resulting in a reduction in wellbore diameter. However, the use of expandable tubing technology within the wellbore can effectively mitigate these problems, potentially eliminating the telescoping effect associated with traditional well designs. This technology allows wells to be completed without reducing the planned diameter of the production string, which is critical for deepwater and highly deviated wells. The effectiveness of expandable tubing technology continues to evolve both offshore and onshore, offering solutions to a variety of operational challenges encountered during well construction. Steel pipe expanding requires specialized tools. During workover operations, these tools are used to isolate corroded or worn sections of casing, seal unwanted perforations and reinforce casing to stimulate flow and treat the wellbore. They also allow problem areas to be isolated without connecting to the previous casing string. However, dual-action expanders are required to drill constant-diameter wells. These expanders create sockets at the bottom of the large-diameter pipe and then expand the casing string to the smaller diameter. The paper describes the design and operating principle of a new expanding device that has been developed to solve the problems associated with efficiently expanding round steel casing and achieving double expansion in mono-diameter well construction. In conclusion, the developed new round steel casing expanding tool achieves double expansion, facilitating the construction of monodiameter oil and gas wells.

Keywords: Well drilling; Mono-diameter technology; Steel pipe expanding; Double expansion; Expander.
e-mail: yelena.shmoncheva@asoiu.edu.az

Date submitted: 29.01.2024 Date accepted: 31.05.2024
M. E. Alsafarova, A. M. Samadov, K. I. Matiyev, J. G. Ganbarova
«OilGasScientificResearchProject» Institute, SOCAR, Baku, Azerbaijan
Asphaltene-Resin-Paraffin deposits (ARPD) form a certain proportion of the crude oil mass, separating as temperature and pressure decrease and adsorbing to the surfaces of the reservoir wellbore zone, downhole equipment and tubulars. These deposits precipitate in the wellbore zone, oilfield equipment and pipes,resulting in reduced system productivity, reduced pumping efficiency of the pumping equipment and other negative consequences. Asphalt-resin and paraffin deposits (ARPD) are a complex mixture of solid paraffin hydrocarbons, asphalt-resin substances (ARS), water and mechanical impurities. The strength and composition of ARPD depend on the composition and properties of oil, geological, physical and technological conditions of field development. Chemical methods for removing deposits are currently the most widely used, as they are highly effective and technologically advanced. To this end, new reagents have been developed and their physico-chemical properties have been studied. Subsequently, the selected reagents were tested on oil samples from Oil and Gas Production Department (OGPD) with a paraffin content of more than 6 %. It was also shown that paraffin inhibitors have individual effects; a reagent that is effective on oil from one field may not have the same effect on oil from other fields. The research includes studies of selected reagents for paraffinic oils from different fields. Using the «cold finger» method, the efficacy of the selected reagents against paraffin deposition was investigated and their optimum doses were determined.

Keywords: reagent; sendiment; paraffin; asphaltene; resin; well bottom zone; viscosity; depressor.
e-mail: matanat.alsafarova@socar.az

Date submitted: 20.02.2024 Date accepted: 30.05.2024
Scientific Petroleum 2024, 1

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